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український переклад • Need a specialised Ukrainian translation?
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Did you know about the Ukrainian language?
- Language family. Ukrainian language (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrajinszka mova, [ukraˈjinsʲka ˈmɔva]) is a language of the Eastern Slavic subgroup of Slavic languages; it is written in Cyrillic characters.
- Speakers. Ukrainians make up nearly eighty per cent of the population of Ukraine, but less than seventy per cent of the population claim Ukrainian as their mother tongue. The majority of Ukrainians are proficient and fluent in Russian, and a significant proportion claim it as their mother tongue. A mixed language has emerged in the mixed population area, which contains elements of both Russian and Ukrainian: it is Suryzyk, which many people claim as their mother tongue. According to a recent survey, more than two thirds of all press products published in Ukraine are in Russian, and less than a third are in Ukrainian. For periodicals, just over 10% are in Ukrainian.
- Its vocabulary has similarities with the languages of the neighbouring Slavic peoples, especially Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Slovak.
- Effects. The situation of Ukrainian is paradoxical: although historically an Eastern Slavic language, it is strongly influenced by Polish: while there is a continuous transition between dialects towards Polish and Belarusian, the borders are sharper towards Russian.
- Ukrainian and the other Slavic languages. Ukrainian is derived from the Eastern Old Slavic language of the historic state of Kievan Rus and has survived to this day despite being banned twice in Tsarist Russia and persecuted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The peculiarity of Ukrainian, in which it differs from all other Slavic languages, is that the Old Slavic [o] has been changed into [i] in closed syllables - through diphthongus. (This has not happened in Ruthenian, so in this respect Ruthenian is closer to Russian than to Ukrainian.) Since [i] and [o] are rather distant sounds, this difference makes it particularly difficult to identify words of the same origin.
- Russian in the Ukrainian Parliament. If a member of parliament speaks in Russian instead of Ukrainian, the Svoboda members (members of the nationalist Freedom Party) bang on the table and chant for him to speak Ukrainian. This is how it happens that in recent times MPs in the Ukrainian parliament have been making twice the 'allowed' noise during plenary sessions. The measurement of the noise level was ordered by the Speaker, who was interrupted by chanting after he himself spoke in Russian.
- A language law introduced in 2012 allows minorities within a given administrative unit to officially use their mother tongue if their share reaches 10%.
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